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試題內容

Passage Two
Questions 51 to 55 are based on the following passage.
  In agrarian(農業的) , pre-industrial Europe, “you’d want to wake up early, start working with the sunrise, have a break to have the largest meal, and then you’d go back to work,” says Ken Albala, a professor of history at the University of the Pacific. “Later, at 5 or 6, you’d have a smaller supper.”
  This comfortable cycle, in which the rhythms of the day helped shape the rhythms of the meals, gave rise to the custom of the large midday meal, eaten with the extended family. “Meals are the foundation of the family,” says Carole Counihan, a professor at Millersville University in Pennsylvania, “so there was a very important interconnection between eating together” and strength-eating family ties.
  Since industrialization, maintaining such a slow cultural metabolism has been much harder, with the long midday meal shrinking to whatever could be stuffed into a lunch bucket or bought at a food stand. Certainly, there were benefits. Modern techniques for producing and shipping food led to greater variety and quantity, including a tremendous increase in the amount of animal protein and dairy products available, making us more vigorous than our ancestors.
  Yet plenty has been lost too, even in cultures that still live to eat. Take Italy. It’s no secret that the Mediterranean diet is healthy, but it was also a joy to prepare and eat. Italians, says Counihan, traditionally began the day with a small meal. The big meal came at around 1 p.m. In between the midday meal and a late, smaller dinner came a small snack. Today, when time zones have less and less meaning, there is little tolerance for offices’ closing for lunch, and worsening traffic in cities means workers can’t make it home and back fast enough anyway. So the formerly small supper after sundown becomes the big meal of the day, the only one at which the family has a chance to get together. “The evening meal carries the full burden that used to be spread over two meals,” says Counihan.

1.[單選題]What does the author say about Italians of the old days?
  • A.They enjoyed cooking as well as eating.
  • B.They ate a big dinner late in the evening.
  • C.They ate three meals regularly every day.
  • D.They were expert at cooking meals.
  • 解題思路:定位由題干中的Italians定位到最后一段。點睛細節題。最后一段第二句提到,意大利人的飲食很健康,他們喜歡準備食物,也喜歡享用食物。因此,正確答案為A項。避錯文章最后一段中提到,意大利人的主餐一般在中午一點左右,晚上只吃簡餐,B項錯誤。文章提到,意大利人除了早中晚三餐外,還有下午茶點,C項錯誤。D項文章未提及。
2.[單選題]What does the author think of the food people eat today?
  • A.Its quality is usually guaranteed.
  • B.It is varied, abundant and nutritious.
  • C.It is more costly than what our ancestors ate.
  • D.Its production depends too much on technology.
  • 解題思路:定位由題干意思定位到第三段。點睛細節題。第三段最后一句提到,現代的生產技術和運輸技術讓食物更加多樣化,奶制品、動物蛋白等食物讓我們比祖先們更加有活力。因此,正確答案為B項。避錯A、C、D項,文章未提及。
3.[單選題]What does Professor Carole Counihan say about pre-industrial European families eating meals together?
  • A.It was helpful to maintaining a nation’s tradition.
  • B.It brought family members closer to each other.
  • C.It was characteristic of the agrarian culture.
  • D.It enabled families to save a lot of money.
  • 解題思路:定位由題干中的Carole Counihan定位到第二段。點睛細節題。第二段提到康漢教授的話,認為共同用餐能增強家庭關系。因此,正確答案為B項。避錯A、C、D項,文章未提及。
4.[單選題]What do we learn from the passage about people in pre-industrial Europe?
  • A.They had to work from early morning till late at night.
  • B. They were so busy working that they only ate simple meals.
  • C. Their daily routine followed the rhythm of the natural cycle.
  • D.Their life was much more comfortable than that of today.
  • 解題思路:定位由題干中的pre-industrial Europe定位到第一段。點睛細節題。第一段提到,在農業時期的歐洲,人們日出而作日落而息。言下之意就是從早工作到晚,因此,正確答案為A項。避錯文章提到,人們中午會吃的很豐盛,休息一下,再工作,B項錯誤。C、D項,文章未提及。
5.[單選題]What does “cultural metabolism” (Line 1, Para. 3. refer to?
  • A.Evolutionary adaptation.
  • B.Changes in lifestyle.
  • C.Social progress.
  • D.Pace of life.
  • 解題思路:定位由題干意思定位到第三段。點睛細節題。第三段第一句提到,保持這樣一個緩慢的文化新陳代謝變得更加困難,長午餐縮水變成街邊攤。由此可推測,句中的cultural metabolism指的是上文中飲食節奏。因此,正確答案為D項。避錯A、B、C項,文章未提及。
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  • 參考答案:A,B,B,A,D