三、Part Ⅲ Reading Comprehension (40 minutes)
The method for making beer has changed over time. Hops, for example, which give many a modern beer its bitter flavor, are a _____(1)recent addition to the beverage. This was mentioned in reference to brewing in the ninth century. Now, researchers have found a _____(2)ingredient in residue(殘留物) from 5000-year-old beer brewing equipment. While excavating two pits at a site in the central plains of China, scientists discovered fragments from pots, funnels, amphorae, and stoves (stove fragment pictured). The different shapes of the containers _____(3)they were used to brew, filter, and store beer.They may be ancient “beer-making toolkits,” and the earliest _____(4)evidence of beer brewing in China, the researchers report online today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. To _____(5)that hypothesis, the team examined the yellowish, dried _____(6)inside the vessels. The majority of the grains, about 80%, were from cereal crops like millet and barley(大麥), and about 10% were bits of roots, _____(7)likely, would have made the beer sweeter, the scientists say. Barley was an unexpected find: The crop was domesticated in western Eurasia and didn’t become a _____(8)food in central China until about 2000 years ago, according to the researchers. Based on that timing, they suggest barley may have _____(9)in the region not as food, but as_____(10)material for beer brewing beer.