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Section B
Directions: In this section, you are going to read a passage with ten statements attached to it. Each statement contains information given in one of the paragraphs. Identify the paragraph from which the information is derived. You may choose a paragraph more than once. Each paragraph is marked with a letter. Answer the questions by marking the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2.

Rich Children and Poor Ones Are Raised Very Different
A. The lives of children from rich and poor American families look more different than ever before.
B. Well-off families are ruled by calendars, with children enrolled in ballet, soccer and after-school programs, according to a new Pew Research Center survey. There are usually two parents, who spend a lot of time reading to children and worrying about their anxiety levels and hectic schedules.
C. In poor families, meanwhile, children tend to spend their time at home or with extended family, the survey found. They are more likely to grow up in neighborhoods that their parents say aren’t great for raising children, and their parents worry about them getting shot, beaten up or in trouble with the law.
D. The class differences in child rearing are growing, researchers say — a symptom of widening inequality with far-reaching consequences. Different upbringings set children on different paths and can deepen socioeconomic divisions, especially because education is strongly linked to earnings. Children grow up learning the skills to succeed in their socioeconomic stratum, but not necessarily others.
E. “Early childhood experiences can be very consequential for children’s long-term social, emotional and cognitive development,” said Sean F. Reardon, professor of poverty and inequality in education at Stanford University. “And because those influence educational success and later earnings, early childhood experiences cast a lifelong shadow.”
The cycle continues: Poorer parents have less time and fewer resources to invest in their children, which can leave children less prepared for school and work, which leads to lower earnings.
F. American parents want similar things for their children, the Pew report and past research have found: for them to be healthy and happy, honest and ethical, caring and compassionate. There is no best parenting style or philosophy, researchers say, and across income groups, 92 percent of parents say they are doing a good job at raising their children. Yet they are doing it quite differently. Middle-class and higher-income parents see their children as projects in need of careful cultivation, says Annette Lareau, whose groundbreaking research on the topic was published in her book “Unequal Childhoods: Class, Race and Family Life.” They try to develop their skills through close supervision and organized activities, and teach children to question authority figures and navigate elite institutions.
G. Working-class parents, meanwhile, believe their children will naturally thrive, and give them far greater independence and time for free play. They are taught to be compliant and deferential to adults. There are benefits to both approaches. Working-class children are happier, more independent, whine less and are closer with family members, Ms. Lareau found. Higher-income children are more likely to declare boredom and expect their parents to solve their problems. Yet later on, the more affluent children end up in college and en route to the middle class, while working-class children tend to struggle. Children from higher-income families are likely to have the skills to navigate bureaucracies and succeed in schools and workplaces, Ms. Lareau said.
H. “Do all parents want the most success for their children? Absolutely,” she said. “Do some strategies give children more advantages than others in institutions? Probably they do. Will parents be damaging children if they have one fewer organized activity? No, I really doubt it.”
I. Social scientists say the differences arise in part because low-income parents have less money to spend on music class or preschool, and less flexible schedules to take children to museums or attend school events. Extracurricular activities epitomize the differences in child rearing in the Pew survey, which was of a nationally representative sample of 1,807 parents. Of families earning more than $75,000 a year, 84 percent say their children have participated in organized sports over the past year, 64 percent have done volunteer work and 62 percent have taken lessons in music, dance or art. Of families earning less than $30,000, 59 percent of children have done sports, 37 percent have volunteered and 41 percent have taken arts classes.
J. Especially in affluent families, children start young. Nearly half of high-earning, college-graduate parents enrolled their children in arts classes before they were 5, compared with one-fifth of low-income, less-educated parents. Nonetheless, 20 percent of well-off parents say their children’s schedules are too hectic, compared with 8 percent of poorer parents.
K. Another example is reading aloud, which studies have shown gives children bigger vocabularies and better reading comprehension in school. Seventy-one percent of parents with a college degree say they do it every day, compared with 33 percent of those with a high school diploma or less, Pew found. White parents are more likely than others to read to their children daily, as are married parents. Most affluent parents enroll their children in preschool or day care, while low-income parents are more likely to depend on family members. Discipline techniques vary by education level: 8 percent of those with a postgraduate degree say they often spank their children, compared with 22 percent of those with a high school degree or less.
L. The survey also probed attitudes and anxieties. Interestingly, parents’ attitudes toward education do not seem to reflect their own educational background as much as a belief in the importance of education for upward mobility.Most American parents say they are not concerned about their children’s grades as long as they work hard. But 50 percent of poor parents say it is extremely important to them that their children earn a college degree, compared with 39 percent of wealthier parents.
M. Less-educated parents, and poorer and black and Latino parents are more likely to believe that there is no such thing as too much involvement in a child’s education. Parents who are white, wealthy or college-educated say too much involvement can be bad.
Parental anxieties reflect their circumstances. High-earning parents are much more likely to say they live in a good neighborhood for raising children. While bullying is parents’ greatest concern over all, nearly half of low-income parents worry their child will get shot, compared with one-fifth of high-income parents. They are more worried about their children being depressed or anxious.
N. In the Pew survey, middle-class families earning between $30,000 and $75,000 a year fell right between working-class and high-earning parents on issues like the quality of their neighborhood for raising children, participation in extracurricular activities and involvement in their children’s education.
O. Children were not always raised so differently. The achievement gap between children from high- and low-income families is 30 percent to 40 percent larger among children born in 2001 than those born 25 years earlier, according to Mr. Reardon’s research.
People used to live near people of different income levels; neighborhoods are now more segregated by income. More than a quarter of children live in single-parent households — a historic high, according to Pew – and these children are three times as likely to live in poverty as those who live with married parents. Meanwhile, growing income inequality has coincided with the increasing importance of a college degree for earning a middle-class wage.
P. Yet there are recent signs that the gap could be starting to shrink. In the past decade, even as income inequality has grown, some of the socioeconomic differences in parenting, like reading to children and going to libraries, have narrowed, Mr. Reardon and others have found.
Q. Public policies aimed at young children have helped, he said, including public preschool programs and reading initiatives. Addressing disparities in the earliest years, it seems, could reduce inequality in the next generation.

1.[選詞填空]While rich parents are more concerned with their children' s psychological well-being, poor parents are more worried about their children' s safety.
    • 解題思路:由題干中關鍵詞rich parents和poor parents定位到原文M段.該段最后兩句指出.所有的父母都很關注孩子是否受到欺凌.而該子是否會被槍擊是收入較低的父母最擔心的事情.孩子是否會有抑郁或焦慮等心理問題則是較富裕的父母更關注的.故答案為M)。
    2.[選詞填空]Physical punishment is used much less by well-educated parents.
      • 解題思路:題干關鍵詞physical punishment,定位到原文K段。該段最后一句指出,教育層次還導致家長處罰子女的差異:具有研究生學位且聲稱經常打孩子屁股的父母只有8%,而高中或高中以下學歷的父母,經常這這樣做的比例有22%.題干中的physical punishmcnt與原文中的spank their children相對應,故答案為K).
      3.[選詞填空]Forking-class parents teach their children to be obedient and show respect to adults.
        • 解題思路:由題干關健詞working-class parents和adult,定位到原文G段.該段前兩句指出,工薪階層父母認為子女可以自然而然地成長.所以給孩子更多的自主權和自由玩耍的時間。而孩子們所受的教育多是順從尊重成年人.原文中的compliant和respectful to adult與題干中的。bedient和show respect to adult,相對應,故答案為G).
        4.[選詞填空]The increasing differences in child rearing between rich and poor family reflect growing social inequality.
          • 解題思路:由題干關健詞differences in child rearing和inequality定位到原文D段。該段第一句指出,子女撫養方面的階層差異正在擴大。這是不平等現象加劇的一個征兆.將造成深遠的影響,故答案為D).
          5.[選詞填空]Parenting approaches of working-class and affluent families both have advantages.
            • 解題思路:G)由題干中的關鍵詞approaches和advantage,定位到原文G段.該段第三句指出,這兩種家準養育子女的方式各有利弊并進行了詳細對比,故答案為G).
            6.[選詞填空]37.American parents, whether, rich or poor, have similar expectations of their children despite different ways of parenting.
              • 解題思路:由題干關鍵詞American parents,similar和their children定位到原文F段.該段第一句指出,美國父母都希望自己的孩子能夠健康快樂、誠實有道德等。題干中的similar expectations與原文中的similar things相對應.故答案為F)。
              7.[選詞填空]Ms. Lnreau doesn't believe participating in fewer after-class activities will negatively affect children' s development.
                • 解題思路:H)由題干關健詞fewer after-class activities定位到原文H段。該段最后一句引用安妮特·拉羅的話時,提到她對如果父母少安排一次活動,會不會對孩子有害這個問題持懷疑態度,故答案為H).
                8.[選詞填空]Some socioeconomic differences in child rearing have shrunk in the past ten years.
                  • 解題思路:由題于關鍵詞socioeconomic differences, shrunk和in the past ten years 定位至原文P段。該段指出,在過去十年間,雖然收人不平等加劇,但撫養孩子的一些社會經濟差異.比如為孩子朗讀書籍、陪孩子去圖書館,已經在縮小,故答案為P).
                  9.[選詞填空]Wealthy parents are concerned about their children' s mental health and busy schedules
                    • 解題思路:B由題干關鍵詞 mental health和busy schedules定位到原文B段。該段M二句指出,較富有的家庭中的父母更關注該子的焦慮怪度和緊張的日程安排。題干中的are concerned about與原文中的 worrying about對應.故答案為B).
                    10.[選詞填空]Higher-income families and working-class families now tend to live in different neighborhoods.
                      • 解題思路:O)由題干關鍵詞different neighborhood,定位到原文O段.該段第三句指出,以前不同收人水平的鄰居雜居于同一杜區.但如今出現了更多因收人不同而隔離開來的社區,故答案為O)
                      • 參考答案:M,K,G,D,G,F,H,P,B,O